Johns Hopkins scientists say they have figured out how bacteria that cause diarrhea may also be the culprit in some colon cancers. The common Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) dupe immune system cells into permitting runaway colon tissue inflammation, a precursor for malignant growth.
“This could be the H. pylori of colon cancer,” says Johns Hopkins infectious disease specialist, Cynthia Sears, M.D., referring to the bacteria long known to cause stomach ulcers and suspected of causing the majority of stomach cancers.
Her studies suggest that ETBF uses tissue inflammation to cause colon cancer in a similar way that H. pylori causes stomach tumors.
The bacteria, which colonize in the gut, cause no symptoms in some individuals, but others develop diarrhea and colon inflammation, which has been linked to cancer growth. Unlike the case with H. pylori, it is unknown whether standard antibiotics can eradicate the microbe, experts say.
To track the link between ETBF and colon cancer, the Johns Hopkins researchers conducted a series of tests in mice bred to carry mutations in a colon cancer-causing gene called APC.
Their results, published in the August 23 issue of Nature Medicine, show that mice infected with ETBF developed diarrhea which resolved quickly, but within a week, developed inflammation and small tumors in the colon. One month later, the colons were pockmarked with tumors.
Mice infected with a non-toxin producing strain of the bacteria were free of diarrhea, inflammation and tumors.
Next, Sears and the Johns Hopkins team evaluated the bacteria’s effect on immune responses that may contribute to cancer development.
In ETBF-infected mice, they found high levels of a protein called pStat3, which, in its normal role, acts as a signal to trigger inflammation. One of those signals activates an immune cell called T-helper 17 (Th17). Th17 cells produce molecules that have been implicated in fostering inflammation of tissues.
Sears first witnessed the impact of diarrheal pathogens two decades ago in a refugee camp in Thailand where children, especially, were vulnerable to infection where water sanitation is poor. Most diarrheal disease is short-lived but can be very severe, Sears says, and it is common worldwide. The ETBF microbe is found in the gut of up to 20 to 35 percent of children and adults and, according to the Turkish study, in as many as 40 percent of colon cancer patients.
The investigators also envision vaccines and drug therapies that neutralize the pathogen’s toxin and its ability to inflame tissues.
Source: Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, USA